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Launch of X-43A
NASA's X-43A hypersonic aircraft is launched to Mach 10 by a Pegasus rocket booster where the experimental scramjet engine is tested during this third flight of the Hyper-X program. (3min 51sec file)
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Success for X-43A
Mission officials recap the successful flight of NASA's third and final X-43A hypersonic research vehicle during this post-launch news conference. (39min 25sec file)
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X-43A launch preview
NASA officials preview the third and final test launch of the X-43A hypersonic vehicle during this news conference from Dryden Flight Research Center. (29min 47sec file)
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A closer look at black holes
PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY RESEARCH COUNCIL RELEASE
Posted: November 18, 2004

An international team led by an Edinburgh astronomer have discovered that by studying polarised light from black holes they can focus much more closely on what exactly is going on around them. The work is published in the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Studying black holes at the centre of galaxies is difficult. A huge amount of material is falling on to the centre in an active black hole system, and this falling material is thought to power the black hole, but scientists still don't understand this powering mechanism. One critical reason is that these black holes are just too far away for astronomers to isolate the light from them - or more accurately, the light from the compact region where the black holes are actually producing their energy.

However, Kishimoto at the University of Edinburgh and the international team of Antonucci at UC Santa Barbara, Boisson at Paris Observatory, and Blaes also at UC Santa Barbara, have used the Keck I telescope in Hawaii and European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile, to do this isolation of the light. They have looked at a small part of the light emitted from black holes - light that has been scattered as it passes through the clouds very nearby. This scattered light can cleverly be picked up by looking through a polaroid filter just like the lens of polaroid sunglasses, which essentially blocks the unwanted light from elsewhere in the galaxy. The scattered light is polarised so the light waves all line up in the same direction and can pass through the Polaroid filter, but light from the surrounding area which is not polarised is excluded by the filter.

Dr Kishimoto, who leads the team, explained the importance of the new method: "For the first time we can use visible light to focus on the part of a galaxy that is very close to the black hole. We are interested in an area only about one light-day across. Until now, without using Polaroid filters, we couldn't separate the visible light from the black hole from the light coming from a much larger region about 100 light-days across." To put this in context, the galaxies surrounding the black holes are about 30,000 light years across.

As a result of this closer look the team have found a new signal in the observed light that can provide information about the material around a black hole. The signal, called a 'Balmer edge' feature, reveals properties of the material and will allow the team to carry out more detailed modelling of the temperature and density of the region near black holes than has been possible before now. This feature is commonly used to diagnose the nature of the surface of the Sun and other stars, but has never before been seen in visible light from black holes.

The next step is for Kishimoto and his team to take a look at more black holes using this technique to see if the black holes at the centre of different types of galaxy all look the same. They can then try to understand the mechanism that powers a black hole. Kishimoto and the team are now observing many other black holes using other large telescopes.

The Royal Astronomical Society is the UK's leading professional body for astronomy & astrophysics, geophysics, solar and solar-terrestrial physics, and planetary sciences. The Society publishes two specialist scientific publications, Monthly Notices of the RAS and Geophysical Journal International, together with a full-colour journal of news and reviews, Astronomy & Geophysics.

The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) is the UK's strategic science investment agency. It funds research, education and public understanding in four broad areas of science - particle physics, astronomy, cosmology and space science.

PPARC is government funded and provides research grants and studentships to scientists in British universities, gives researchers access to world-class facilities and funds the UK membership of international bodies such as the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, CERN, the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory. It also contributes money for the UK telescopes overseas on La Palma, Hawaii, Australia and in Chile, the UK Astronomy Technology Centre at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and the MERLIN/VLBI National Facility.

The Royal Observatory Edinburgh comprises the UK Astronomy Technology Centre of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Edinburgh and the ROE Visitor Centre.

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